Chair ofInternational Management and Strategic Management
The internationalisation of companies has become so complex that International Management has emerged as a distinct discipline within Business and Management Studies. In research and in teaching, the Chair is concerned with strategic, organisational and cultural challenges of international companies. In order to be competitive, a company needs more than a clear idea of how to internationalise; in the field of Strategic Management we place great emphasis on general processes of setting strategic objectives, strategic analysis, strategy formulation and strategy implementation. With regard to both research and teaching in International Management and in Strategic Management, we aim at combining rigour and relevance.
- Prof. Dr. Stefan Schmid
Holder of the Chair
We offer the following courses:
- International Management I: The Multinational Corporation in the Global Economy
- International Management II: Strategies of Internationalization
- Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten im deutschsprachigen Raum
- Academic Writing in the German-Speaking Countries
- Corporate Strategy (Core Course)
- International Strategy and Structure (Elective)
- Prof. Dr. Stefan Schmid teaches in various ESCP Europe Executive Education Programmes in Berlin, Paris, Madrid, Torino and London. His experience encompasses a wide range of topics within International Management and Strategic Management.
Lectures at Other Universities / Business Schools
Prof. Dr. Stefan Schmid regularly teaches at other universities or business schools as a lecturer or visiting professor. Since 2002, he offered courses at the following institutions:
- Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Germany, “Introduction to Business Administration” (Diploma course in Business Administration)
- University of Vaasa, Finland, “Internationalization Strategies of the Firm” (Master programme)
- Université de Nancy, France, “International Management” (Ph.D. programme)
- Universität Bayreuth, Germany, “Fundamentals of International Management” and “Internationalization Strategies” (Diploma course in Business and Bachelor courses)
- Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt / Oder, Germany, and Collegium Polonicum, Slubice, Poland, “Corporate Strategy” and “International Strategy” (MBA programme)
- Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, France, "Literature Reviews in Business Studies" (Ph.D. programme)
- École Supérieure des Affaires (ESA), Lebanon, "Corporate Strategy" (MBA and Executive MBA programme)
Research at the Chair for International Management and Strategic Management ESCP Europe Campus Berlin has a specific orientation:
Our research concentrates on the international dimension of management. We focus on strategic, organizational und cultural challenges of international firms. Our work is financed by ESCP Europe or through third-party funds, provided by various sources, such as the Bertelsmann Foundation, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants or SFR CEGETEL.
Our chair contributes to theory building and testing without neglecting links to managerial practice. Neither do we believe in dogmatic research nor do we see a supremacy of specific theoretical or methodological approaches. We pursue a pluralistic approach, in which the choice of theories and methods results from the problems to be solved.
We are convinced that it is the task of academics to explain phenomena. In social sciences, however, it is realistic to discover regularities rather than to establish axioms. Hence, we think that there are additional important objectives besides explanation: A (good) description, a synopsis of existing studies which allows the state-of-the-art to emerge, (necessary) criticism of academia and managerial practice also deliver valuable insights.
Science is influenced by culture, just as other areas of life are. Without denying the beneficial effects and the importance of US-American research in our discipline, we do not intend to blindly adapt to overseas practices in every way, but wish to follow our own convictions. This constitutes by no means a parochial notion of science; it rather supports the view that there is not only one legitimate conception of science worldwide. We present our work on international conferences and publish in German and English, partly also in French.
In the following publications you will find the outcome of our convictions:
- Schmid, Stefan: Multikulturalität in der internationalen Unternehmung. Konzepte - Reflexionen - Implikationen, Wiesbaden, 1996 (mir-Edition), Doctoral Dissertation, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, especially pp. 9-114.
- Kutschker, Michael/Bäurle, Iris/Stefan Schmid: Quantitative und qualitative Forschung im Internationalen Management - Ein kritisch-fragender Dialog, Discussion Paper No. 82, WFI – Ingolstadt School of Management, Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, January 1997.
- Schmid, Stefan: Blueprints from the U.S.? Zur Amerikanisierung der Betriebswirtschafts- und Managementlehre, Working Paper No. 2, ESCP-EAP Europäische Wirtschaftshochschule Berlin, July 2003.
- Schmid, Stefan/Oesterle, Michael-Jörg: Internationales Management als Wissenschaft – Herausforderungen und Zukunftsperspektiven, in: Internationales Management. Forschung, Lehre, Praxis, edited by M.-J. Oesterle/S. Schmid, Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, 2009, pp. 3-36.
State-of-the-Art of International Management
Due to the wide distribution of the textbook "Internationales Management" in German-speaking countries and the rapid succession of new editions, our aim is to be knowledgeable in a broad range of subjects within the International Management discipline. We also try to find out what certain theories or concepts mean for managerial practice applying theories and concepts on numerous company cases, as we did for example with our books "Strategien der Internationalisierung" or “Internationalization of Business: Cases on Strategy Formulation and Implementation”. Moreover, we are very much interested in fundamental reflexions on our discipline, including critical or programmatic statements.
- Kutschker, Michael/Schmid, Stefan: Internationales Management, Oldenbourg, München, 7th revised and updated edition, 2011.
- Oesterle, M.-J./Schmid, S. (eds.): Internationales Management. Forschung, Lehre, Praxis. Schäffer-Poeschel, Stuttgart, 2009.
- Schmid, Stefan: Blueprints from the U.S.? Zur Amerikanisierung der Betriebswirtschafts- und Managementlehre, Working Paper No. 2, ESCP-EAP Europäische Wirtschaftshochschule Berlin, July 2003, 41 pages.
- Schmid, Stefan (ed.): Strategien der Internationalisierung. Fallstudien und Fallbeispiele, Oldenbourg, München, 3rd revised an updated edition, 2013.
- Schmid, Stefan (ed.): Internationalization of Business: Cases on Strategy Formulation and Implementation, Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden, 2018 (in press).
- Schmid, Stefan: Do We Care about Relevance in the International Business Field? On Major Problems of Transferring Our Research to Management Practice, Working Paper No. 52, ESCP Europe Wirtschaftshochschule Berlin, 2010, 18 pages.
Strategies of International Firms
It is a necessity for firms to constantly strive for competitive advantage that has to be gained in the first place, then extended, defended and enhanced. We are mainly interested in the question of how competitive advantage can be created and maintained by internationalization. We do not only examine strategies for market entry and market development: target market strategies, timing strategies, allocation strategies and coordination strategies are also of highest importance in our research. It is our conviction that every company needs to develop and implement its individual strategies while permanently adapting them to the requirements of environments.
- Grosche, Philipp/Mayrhofer, Ulrike/Schmid, Stefan: La configuration et la coordination internationales de la chaîne de valeur dans l’industrie automobile allemande, in: Finance Contrôle Stratégie, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2015, pp. 1-15.
- Kotulla, Thomas/Schmid, Stefan: International Standardization and Adaptation of Products – Combining the Fit Approach and the Profit Logic, in: Marketing ZfP, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2016, pp. 180-199.
- Schmid, Stefan: Strategies of Internationalization: An Overview, in: Internationalization of Business: Cases on Strategy Formulation and Implementation, edited by S. Schmid, Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden, 2018 (in press).
- Schmid, Stefan: Strategische Analysen und ihre Bedeutung im Kontext der Internationalisierung, in: Außenhandel im Wandel. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Reinhard Moser, edited by J. Puck, C. Leitl, Physika/Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 153-174.
- Schmid, Stefan/Daniel, Andrea: Telia - A Swedish-Finnish Marriage after a Failed Norwegian Courtship, in: Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 51, No. 3, 2009, pp. 297-310.
- Schmid, Stefan/Grosche, Philipp/Mayrhofer, Ulrike: Configuration and Coordination of International Marketing Activities, in: International Business Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2016, pp. 535-547.
- Schmid, Stefan/Kotulla, Thomas: 50 Years of Research on International Standardization and Adaptation - From a Systematic Literature Analysis to a Theoretical Framework, in: International Business Review, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2011, pp. 491-507.
Top Management and Corporate Governance in International Firms
We are convinced that certain individuals, like founders or members of management boards and supervisory boards, are of fundamental importance for the internationalization of firms. In many projects, we currently investigate the internationalization of top managers. We analyse both antecedents and consequences of internationalization in upper echelons. Internationalization, however, is not only a question of the passport – it is also a question of international education, international work experience or international linkages, for instance via mandates.
- Dauth, Tobias/Pronobis, Paul/Schmid, Stefan: Exploring the Link between Internationalization of Top Management and Accounting Quality: The CFO’s International Experience Matters, in: International Business Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2017, pp. 71-88.
- Schmid, Stefan/Altfeld, Frederic/Dauth, Tobias: Americanization as a Driver of CEO Pay in Europe: The Moderating Role of CEO Power, in: Journal of World Business, Vol. 53, No. 4, 2018, pp. 433-451.
- Schmid, Stefan/Altfeld, Frederic: International Work Experience and Compensation: Is More Always Better for CFOs?, in: European Management Journal, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2018, pp. 530-543.
- Schmid, Stefan/Dauth, Tobias: Does Internationalization Make a Difference? Stock Market Reaction to Announcements of International Top Executive Appointments, in: Journal of World Business, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2014, pp. 63-77.
- Schmid, Stefan/Dauth, Tobias: Internationale Diversität im Top-Management – Eine empirische Analyse der DAX-30-Unternehmen, in: Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, Vol. 64, No. 11, 2012, pp. 772-802.Schmid, Stefan/Wurster, Dennis J.: Are International Top Executives Paid More? Empirical Evidence on Fixed and Variable Compensation in Management Boards of German MNCs, in: European Journal of International Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2016, pp. 25-53.
- Schmid, Stefan/Wurster, Dennis J.: International Work Experience: Is it Really Accelerating the Way to the Management Board of MNCs?, in: International Business Review, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2017, pp. 991-1008.Schmid, Stefan/Wurster, Dennis J.: Internationalität im Top-Management deutscher Konzerne, in: Zeitschrift für Corporate Governance, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2013, pp. 197-203.Schmid, Stefan/Wurster, Dennis J./Dauth, Tobias: Internationalisation of Upper Echelons in Different Institutional Contexts: Top Managers in Germany and the UK, in: European Journal of International Management, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2015, pp. 510-535.
Subsidiaries in International Firms
International firms have numerous subsidiaries. However, not all subsidiaries are alike. Hence, we investigate which roles foreign subsidiaries have and which consequences the role differentiation entails. We also place an emphasis on initiatives by foreign subsidiaries as we are convinced that headquarters are not anymore the sole centre of gravity in most firms operating across borders. Based on our interest in dynamic aspects of international management (see, for instance, our Three-E-Concept), we also attach great importance to the development of subsidiaries striving to transcend the static perspective.
- Kutschker, Michael/Bäurle, Iris/Schmid, Stefan: International Evolution, International Episodes and International Epochs - Implications for Managing Internationalization, in: Management International Review, Special Issue "Internationalization Processes - New Perspectives for a Classical Field of International Management", Vol. 37, No. 2, 1997, pp. 101-124.
- Schmid, Stefan/Daniel, Andrea: Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships from a Social-Psychological Perspective: How Perception Gaps Concerning the Subsidiary’s Role May Lead to Conflict, in: Politics and Power in MNCs, edited by C. Dörrenbächer, M. Geppert, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011, pp. 255-280.
- Schmid, Stefan/Daub, Matthias: Service Offshoring Subsidiaries - Towards a Typology, in: Internationalization and Management of Foreign Operations, edited by J. Larimo/S. Rumpunen, Vol. 130, Vaasan Yliopiston Julkaisuja, Vaasa/Finland, 2006, pp. 209-234.
- Schmid, Stefan/Dzedek, Lars/Lehrer, Mark: From Rocking the Boat to Wagging the Dog: A Literature Review of Subsidiary Initiative Research and Integrative Framework, in: Journal of International Management, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2014, pp. 201-218.
- Schmid, Stefan/Hefter, Katharina: Evaluating the Performance of Foreign Subsidiaries: An Extension of Gupta/Govindarajan’s Role Typology, in: Contributions to International Business. Essays in Honour of Professor Jorma Larimo, edited by Martti Laksonen, Ahmad Arslan, Minnie Kontkanen, Acta Wasaensia 303, University of Vaasa, Vaasa/Finnland, 2014, pp. 1-30.
- Schmid, Stefan/Hefter, Katharina: How Do MNC Subsidiaries Differ in Terms of Performance Evaluation? A Case Study based on Bartlett/Ghoshal's Role Typology, in: Internationales Management und die Grundlagen des globalisierten Kapitalismus. Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Johann Engelhard, edited by S. Eckert, Georg Trautnitz, Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden, 2016, pp. 123-157.
- Schmid, Stefan/Kretschmer, Katharina: Performance Evaluation of Foreign Subsidiaries – A Review of the Literature and a Contingency Framework, in: International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol. 12, 2010, pp. 219-258.
- Schmid, Stefan/Maurer, Julia: Relationships Between MNC Subsidiaries – Opening a Black Box in the International Business Field, in: Internationale Unternehmungen und das Management ausländischer Tochtergesellschaften, edited by S. Schmid, Gabler, Wiesbaden, 2011 (mir-Edition), pp. 53-83.
- Schmid, Stefan/Schurig, Andreas: The Development of Critical Capabilities in Foreign Subsidiaries: Disentangling the Role of the Subsidiary's Business Network, in: International Business Review, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2003, pp. 755-782.